Thursday, March 08, 2007

Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
Chen urges KMT to apologize for 228
NO MORE SECRETS: The president told a memorial ceremony in Taipei that only when the
complete truth is known would fairness and justice be truly served
By Ko Shu-ling and Jimmy Chuang
The Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT)
should apologize for the atrocities
committed during the White Terror era
and turn over all documents concerning
the 228 Incident, President Chen
Shui-bian said yesterday.
Chen also asked the KMT to return
assets stolen from the people, rather than
selling them off at reduced prices.
"We find it unacceptable that some
politicians' words do not match their
actions. They apologize on the one hand,
but sell off their stolen party assets on
the other," he said.
President Chen Shui-bian, center, and Vice President
Annette Lu, on Chen;s left, observe a moment of silence
in Taipei yesterday afternoon for the victims of the 228
Incident. Chen, unveiling a new memorial to the
victims, vowed to uncover the truth behind the killings.
"Such politicians are not fit to lead the country," he said.
Chen made the remarks in a speech to the national memorial service commemorating
the 60th anniversary of the 1947 massacre at Taipei City's 228 Peace Park yesterday
Vice President Annette Lu, Premier Su Tseng-chang, Democratic Progressive Party
(DPP) Chairman Yu Shyi-kun and Taipei Mayor Hau Lung-bin were among those
attending the event.
Saying the 228 Incident was not an "ordinary historical event," the president said that
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
anyone who had suffered under the KMT's authoritarian reign was also a victim of the
Although the government has made efforts to help 228 Incident victims and their
families to cope with their pain, there was much more to be done, Chen said.
"Sixty years is not the end but a new beginning," he said. "Future work will focus on
addressing the responsibility of perpetrators."
"Only when the truth is known can fairness and justice be served," he said.
Such responsibilities include renaming Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall and Chiang
Kai-shek's mausoleum and accounting for all the atrocities committed during the
Martial Law era, Chen said.
At the ceremony, Chen presented certificates to four victims of the "228 Incident" to
restore their reputations. They had been labeled as "hooligans" on their household
registrations during the KMT's reign.
Yesterday morning, Chen unveiled the name plaque of the new National 228 Incident
He also urged the legislature to approve legal revisions to the Statute for Handling of
and Compensation for the 228 Incident.
The government proposed an amendment to the law which has been blocked by
pan-blue lawmakers since it was introduced in October 2005.
Meanwhile, former president Lee Teng-hui vowed to dedicate himself to helping
Taiwan become a more "normal" nation and said he would always stand by the
Taiwanese people.
Lee said he would continue to push for the country's name to be changed, for the
enactment of a new constitution and for accession to the UN.
Lee made the remarks at the "10,000 People Sing" event held yesterday afternoon on
Ketagalan Boulevard in front of the Presidential Office. The event was cosponsored
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
by the 228 Foundation.
In other developments, Su urged KMT Chairman Ma Ying-jeou to do more to help
228 Incident victims and their family members.
"[Ma] always says that he's sorry for the victims and their family members. Well, I
hope he shows some sincerity," Su said as he attended the grand opening of the 228
National Memorial Hall yesterday morning.
Su said the KMT had done little -- other than make apologies -- to make reparations to
228 Incident victims and their families.
He urged Ma to turn over 228 Incident-related documents kept in the KMT's museum
to the government to help with the investigation into the incident. He also urged Ma to
ask KMT members to stop boycotting proposed laws or amendments related to 228.
"I would also suggest [Ma] return the party's assets stolen from the people [to the
government so that they can be allocated] for the use of 228 Incident victims and their
families," Su said.
The premier said the KMT's museum has documents detailing the progress of the 228
Incident, including the twice-a-day telegrams that KMT members sent to the party's
headquarters in Nanjing to update party leaders on the latest developments.
The KMT headquarters then deployed more troops to Taiwan and worked with its
Taipei branch to coordinate the arrests of people whose names were on a check list, he
"Victims and their families expect the truth to come out because there will be no
forgiveness if there is no truth," Su said. "The KMT should help to make this happen
by doing more, not just saying `sorry.'"
The premier said the KMT had perpetrated the 228 Incident and its aftermath was its
Su added that the government should not be responsible for paying compensation to
the victims or their families.
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
"The government's money comes from the people. It is their tax money, from their
hard work," he said. "The KMT created the tragedy. It would be natural for the party
to pay compensation. I do not see anything wrong with that, since the majority of the
KMT's assets were stolen from the people anyway."
KMT tried to show truth behind 228 `ethnic conflict': Ma
By Mo Yan-chih
Former Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) chairman Ma Ying-jeou defended the party's
efforts to reveal the truth behind the 228 Incident yesterday, while promising to
improve political democracy and cross-strait relations to prevent the recurrence of
such a tragedy.
In an article entitled "Five promises" published in the Chinese-language United Daily
News, Ma argued that the KMT had spared no effort to reveal the truth of the incident
and to work toward reconciliation with the victims and their family members by
making public apologies and honoring the victims.
"I've tried every possible way to heal the wounds of the 228 Incident, and I
understand that historical tragedies are always twisted and difficult to heal," he wrote.
Ma vowed to make a greater effort to prevent such a tragedy from recuring, and he
urged the public to "say no" to ethnic conflicts.
"Tragic ethnic conflicts such as the 228 Incident are likely to happen again if people
allow politicians to continue dividing ethnic groups. We can't allow this to happen.
What we want is a harmonious Taiwan," he wrote.
Ma also pledged to fight against corruption, for true democracy in politics and society
and for peaceful and open cross-strait relations.
"Taiwan should seek to end the hostility in cross-strait relations and sign a peace
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
agreement, so we can be free from the threat of war," he wrote.
In response to Premier Su Tseng-chang's call for the KMT to make public all of its
228-related documents, Ma said the party had already made public the documents in
its history center.
He also said the decision-maker during the incident was not the party's chairman.
"The KMT history center only stores a limited number of documents related to 228.
More information should be found in the government [archives]. As the ruling party,
the Democratic Progressive Party should find more documents there," Ma said while
attending a 228 memorial event in Tainan.
However, he said the party was willing to support compensation for 228 victims and
their families.
The KMT caucus blocked passage of a proposed amendment to the Statute for
Handling of and Compensation for the 228 Incident in the legislature on Tuesday.
KMT spokesman Su Jun-ping said yesterday the party supported replacing the world
"compensation" with "indemnification" in the statute but would not accept the
amendment if it was aimed at creating political struggles.
Collectors compete for newly issued 228 stamps
LIMITED SUPPLY: The Taipei Post Office had only 500 sets of memorial stamps, all of which it
sold to eager customers within half an hour of opening its doors
By Shelley Shan
Excited stamp collectors lined up in front of the Taipei Post Office early yesterday
morning to be among the first to acquire freshly printed 228 Memorial Hall Stamps
issued by the Taiwan Post Co.
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
But enthusiasm soon turned into anger
as police tried in vain to prevent unruly
queuers from sneaking forward in the
line to purchase a second set of stamps.
Because each branch office only has
limited supplies of the stamps, some
collecters had to visit more than one post
office to try to acquire stamps.
Customers were only permitted to
purchase two to four stamps at a time,
but most collectors wanted to buy the
entire set of 20 stamps.
"What is the purpose of collecting the
stamps if you can only buy four of
them?" one stamp collector asked. "It is
not worth it!"
A woman shows off her sheet of
newly issued 228 Memorial
Hall Stamps at the Taipei Post
Office yesterday.
"The quality of the design is poor," another stamp collector complained. "It looks like
it was done in a hurry."
Despite complaints and minor conflicts, the first batch of stamps bearing the name
"Taiwan" has proven to be a popular commodity among enthusiasts.
The Taipei Post Office on Nanhai Road, for example, was given 500 sets to sell. All
500 sets were sold within half an hour after the post office opened at 8:30am.
"These Taiwan stamps were published immediately after Chunghwa Post changed its
name to Taiwan Post," a young man said while on the way to have his postage
envelope stamped with a 228 Memorial Hall seal.
"Since the Legislative Yuan has yet to amend the relevant regulation to legalize the
name change, the company might have to change its name back. And if that is the case,
these stamps could become rarities," he said.
The recently renamed post office announced earlier that it would issue 1 million
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
stamps yesterday in remembrance of the 228 Incident.
The stamp features the new National 228 Memorial Hall, located on Nanhai Road,
with a lily next to it.
To accommodate stamp collectors, Taiwan Post kept 51 post offices open yesterday,
although it was a national holiday.
The company said more than 400,000 stamps were sold yesterday. It also said 300,000
stamps would be placed in its annual yearbook. More than 100,000 would be reserved
for the post office's long-term subscribers. The remaining stamps will be available for
purchase today.
Taiwanese take `228' to the US
GIVING HIS ALL: Misjudging the weather, 66-year-old Liu Chin-chen, `Taiwan's Forrest
Gump,' ran 40km through heavy snow in Delaware wearing short pants
By Charles Snyder
A drive by Taiwanese-Americans to make other Americans aware of the 228 Incident
and promote Taiwanese independence was set to come to Capitol Hill yesterday, as
dozens of organizations made last minute preparations for a memorial service in a
House office building.
The service, which was expected to attract a number of congressmen, and a press
conference before it, were the culmination of a 240km walk/run from Philadelphia,
the home of US independence, to Washington by 25 Taiwanese-Americans from all
over the country.
Along the route, tired but enthusiastic marchers distributed copies of a manifesto they
were planing to unveil in Washington. It called on US citizens to learn about the 228
Incident, urged US President George W. Bush and Congress to help safeguard
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
Taiwan's democracy, called for Taiwanese membership of the UN and demanded that
China "renounce its territorial claims over Taiwan."
In their proclamation, the marchers "implore the citizens of this great nation to learn
the truth of the 228 massacre, so that those who perished 60 years ago shall not have
died in vain and Americans can help prevent such history from repeating itself."
"We want the world to know that the Taiwanese want our own future," said marcher
Nora Tsay, a past president of the North American Taiwanese Women's Association.
"Though we are all Taiwanese-Americans, we are deeply concerned about the future
of Taiwan, and because of the 228 Incident, the massacre of Feb. 28, we want the
world to know that this kind of tragedy could happen again, and that we do not want
to see it happen."
After arriving at the University of Maryland on Monday evening, the group spent
Tuesday visiting congressional offices and seeing congressmen and their aides.
Those they met were very supportive, said Michael Yeun, the president of the New
Jersey chapter of the Formosan Association for Public Affairs, the leader of the group.
"They seem to be able to understand the [228] situation," he said.
Joining the walk/run was Liu Chin-chen, known as "The Forrest Gump of Taiwan,"
after the US book and movie. Liu gained fame by running barefoot around Taiwan in
support of democracy.
Fellow marchers said that Liu, 66, ran a full 40km through heavy snow in Delaware.
It was the first time Liu had been to the US and the first time he had seen snow, said
Susan Chang, a past president of the Taiwanese Association of America.
This time around, Liu wore shoes. But, not knowing much about US weather, he also
wore shorts. He vowed to wear warmer clothing next time, Chang said.
Another marcher was Kathy Li, who holds the Taiwanese record for the 1,500m,
which she set in 1975. She also won three gold medals at the 1975 Asian track
championships in Korea, but was denied a shot at the 1976 Summer Olympics in
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
Montreal when the then Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) government rejected
China's demand that the name "Taiwan" not be used.
"This is my opportunity to wear the name `Taiwan' on my shirt and to represent
Taiwan. Going forward, we should use the Taiwan name on everything. And we want
Taiwan to be an independent country," Li told the Taipei Times.
A high point of the march came in Philadelphia when more than 300
Taiwanese-Americans gathered next to the Liberty Bell to proclaim Taiwan's cause
through a rally and commemorative service.
The assemblage marched the first 5km symbolically and then dispersed, as the 24 core
marchers continued on to Washington.
A time for reflection
Lin Lien-ming, director of the Hualien County Association for the Care of Relatives of Victims of the
228 Incident, yesterday pays his respects during a memorial service in Hualien.
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
Web-based project commemorates the 228 Incident
HOMAGE: Taiwanese from around the world put the collaborative nature of the Internet to
good use by creating a joint tribute to the victims of the 228 Incident
By Loa Iok-sin
Ninety people from different corners of the world -- most of whom have never met
each other -- joined forces to commemorate the 228 Incident by creating an online
The project focused on the idea of justice for the victims of the incident and all
interested parties were invited to submit their contributions, organizers said.
"Hosting the project online made it possible for people from all over the world to
participate," said Miawko, a project organizer who wishes to be known only by her
online nickname.
Submissions were accepted between Feb. 1 and Feb. 20, during which time organizers
received hundreds of photos, drawings, video clips and poems as well as a recorded
interview and a theme song for the project.
"In addition to the 10 to 15 organizers, about 80 people submitted their works.
Altogether about 90 people contributed [to the making of the video]," said Takayuki,
the video editor who also wishes to be known only by her online nickname.
"I really don't know the ages or occupations of the participants, since most of us don't
even know each other," Miawko said.
The completed video was posted online on Monday. Although it is only four minutes
and thirty-six seconds long, it was still a big challenge to complete the editing process
on time.
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
"The most difficult part was to find a central theme for the video. I had to find a way
of linking all the materials together," said Takayuki, who spent the entire Lunar New
Year holiday working on the video.
"One night, I began watching the interview with Chien Tang at about 9pm and
finished editing it at about 6am," she said.
Chien is a division director at the 228 Memorial Foundation.
Ultimately, only 20 seconds of the 90 minute interview with Chien were included in
the video.
Writing and recording the theme song, Lily, in the space of just 10 days was also a
Tsao Hsin-wen, a Taiwanese musician who lives in Vienna, Austria, was put in charge
of the music.
"I had no hesitation in agreeing to work on the song but I was busy with another
project, so I asked my uncle to write the lyrics," Tsao said.
Tsao's uncle, Kufao, proved himself more than equal to the task, as many who listened
to the song were touched by its lyrics.
Kufao finished the lyrics in just two days and Tsao composed the accompanying
music in three days.
"The most challenging part was finding the right singer," Tsao said.
She had to find a singer who was able to sing in Taiwanese and would do so pro bono.
"I eventually turned to Taiwan's representative office in Vienna for help," Tsao said.
Tsao was able to arrange studio time through her husband, Hans Doellinger, a
professor at a conservatory in Vienna and ultimately the song -- ?and the video -- were
completed on schedule.
The video begins with these words:
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
"The night was long and horrifying. When daylight broke the next morning, dead
bodies were found floating in Keelung Harbor and on the Tienliao River."
The video then shows contemporary footage of sites on a small island near the
Keelung Harbor where people were murdered 60 years ago.
It is notable that there are no signs to indicate what happened all those years ago.
"Why is there no evidence of the 228 massacre here?" the narrator asks.
After slide shows of 228 monuments across the nation and various art works depicting
the violence that took place, the video shows scenes of Nazi massacres of Jews during
World War II, the Nuremberg Trial and how European countries have dealt with these
grim events.
"So what about Taiwan?" the narrator asks.
The project organizers explained that they were calling for an honest confession and a
sincere apology from the perpetrators of the 228 Incident. Only then could there be
reconciliation, they said.
"The Chinese Nationalist Party [KMT] keeps asking people to forgive," Takayuki
"If you strike a person, you can't just tell him to forget about it. You have to apologize
first, then it's up to the victim to decide whether or not to forgive you. It's ridiculous
that the perpetrator of the crime keeps telling the victims to forget about it," she
All of the contributors to the video were volunteers.
The video can be viewed at
Mothers push for Tiananmen probe
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
SHEDDING LIGHT: A letter signed by 128 members of the Tiananmen Mother's group called for a public accounting,
restitution and the prosecution of those responsible
Relatives of victims of the 1989 Tiananmen Square massacre called on the National
People's Congress to open a new investigation and allow publication of accounts of
the crackdown, they said yesterday.
A letter signed by 128 members of the Tiananmen Mother's group was sent to the
congress ahead of its annual session starting on Monday, said Zhang Xianling, a
member of the organization.
The signatories were led by outspoken government critic and Nobel Peace Prize
nominee Ding Zilin.
Hundreds, possibly thousands of unarmed protesters were gunned down in the streets
of Beijing by military units on June 3, 1989, as the government ended six weeks of
pro-democracy protests.
The massacre remains one of the most sensitive political issues in China.
The letter called for "a fresh investigation into the incident, a public accounting and
appropriate restitution, and prosecution of those responsible," Zhang said.
"We sent the letter to the standing committee of the National People's Congress, like
we do every year," Zhang said.
"We have confirmed that they received the letter."
China will open its annual session of parliament on Monday with the building of a
"harmonious society," the pet project of President Hu Jintao, the central focus.
The letter also called on authorities to lift a ban on three books on the incident,
including one containing interviews with Zhao Ziyang, former head of the Chinese
Communist Party (CCP) who was ousted for his opposition to the massacre.
Another was written by former prime minister Li Peng, who is reviled for ordering the
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
crackdown but who reportedly has tried to clear his name through his banned
The third is Ding's book The Moment of Truth, which details the 18-year effort of the
Tiananmen Mothers to overturn the government's verdict that the unrest was a
"counter-revolutionary rebellion."
Meanwhile, two members of parliament were dismissed, media reports said yesterday.
The Xinhua news agency said the two were expelled from the national parliament
over alleged involvement in corruption, without giving other details.
Xinhua said that the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC)
voted yesterday to approve local parliamentary decisions to strip Liu Weiming, 68, a
Guangdong provincial official, and Deng Zhonghua, 49, president of Hunan Chendian
International Development, of their NPC membership.
It said Liu, a vice governor of Guangdong Province from 1988 to 1998, was dismissed
for "seriously violating discipline," a decision made by the provincial people's
congress in Guangdong said.
He has also been expelled from the CCP.
KMT contrition for 228 is nonsense
When former Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) chairman Ma Ying-jeou said on
Sunday that the 228 Incident was not an ethnic issue but one of poor governance, it
could be charitably concluded that he lives in a Nationalist Chinese fantasy world.
In the space of four days, Ma has reversed this position, writing yesterday in the
United Daily News that: "Tragic ethnic conflicts such as the 228 Incident are likely to
happen again if people allow politicians to continue dividing ethnic groups."
This new stance, which misrepresents the events and political structures of 1947, will
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
probably leave readers rather confused. So, let the facts talk:
After the arrival of the KMT in late 1945, officials and newspaper editorials said
Taiwanese had been infected by the Japanese -- on levels of language, culture and
identity that can only be sensibly labeled as "ethnic" -- and promised to cure them of
their "Japaneseness." This led to stupid policies, such as breaking up families with
Japanese members and banning the use in publications of the Japanese language --
Taiwan's lingua franca at the time -- thus severing lines of communication between
those of different ethnic groups with limited literacy.
So, ethnicity indeed had a critical role in 228.
All this history may be too complex for Ma to understand. And to this day, Ma may be
unaware that his mentor and former employer, president Chiang Ching-kuo, spent a
few days in Taiwan in the aftermath of 228 collecting intelligence on dissidents for
direct delivery to his father, dictator Chiang Kai-shek. With KMT icons caked in
blood, Ma has good reason to concentrate on "ethnic" semantics.
Yet Ma is the most moderate and conciliatory KMT leader on this issue. He is the
KMT man civilized people turn to in the hope of having a dialogue. He can be abused
to his face by his foes and he will maintain decorum. Unusual for a KMT leader, he
manages to retain a degree of credibility and dignity.
The same cannot be said for most of his senior party colleagues, where there is scant
interest in the 228 Incident. Put simply, there is no genuine contrition in the KMT
over its criminal past.
The word "responsibility" and apologies may be bandied about, but the KMT has
come up pitifully short on what really matters: action.
Action to make amends is the product of true contrition, yet within the KMT, and on
its think tank perimeters and across sympathetic academic networks, hardliners
consistently act in opposition to the process of accountability. And they still have the
upper hand: So-called party moderates rarely speak out with conviction on these
Events that triggered the 228 Incident -- government theft of private property, abuse
of international aid, carpetbagging, the killing and mistreatment of ordinary people --
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
were later reflected in the manner in which top KMT officials made fortunes from the
enmeshing of party and state. It is this legacy that the KMT refuses to denounce, let
alone seek to correct in a manner respectful of all Taiwanese people.
Instead, we are treated to the KMT and its radical allies saying that accountability for
228 and the White Terror threatens to foment ethnic tension -- a claim that is
unspeakably arrogant and malicious.
The real issue is this: Until the KMT can explain why it defends and nurtures
extremist views of history and rationalizes theft of public assets, the pan-green-camp
voter will look upon it as ill-willed.
Today's KMT leaders did not commit the crimes of 1947 or those thereafter, but they
refuse to let go of the booty that the violence helped put in their hands.
Until this changes, the anniversary of the 228 Incident will continue to divide those
who want to move forward by facing the past and those who insult the memory of the
murdered by lecturing the bereaved on ethnic harmony.
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
Name changes necessary
Most Westerners identify the name "Taiwan" with a progressive, technically
innovative and democratic country that makes high quality products and exports them
around the world.
Taiwan is a "brand" that people trust, and "Made in Taiwan" evokes quality and
reliability. Westerners generally regard people from Taiwan as Taiwanese but are
sometimes unsure exactly how to identify the native language they speak.
Notwithstanding the political, constitutional and legal imperatives, when the Republic
of China (ROC) is used however, the country's identity becomes a little murky.
First, the ambiguity in the name can imply that the ROC belongs to China.
Second, acronyms with the letter R for Republic in them are mostly associated with
repressive communist regimes such as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea
(North Korea), the USSR and the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Third, a question many Westerners raise is, are people from the ROC Chinese or
Taiwanese? Then, we have the leading advocates for Taiwan in the US bearing the
historical name Formosa.
The "Formosa Foundation" and the "Formosan Association for Public Affairs" add to
Westerners confusion and obscure Taiwan's modern status and true identity. Whatever
the political motivation for President Chen Shui-bian's recent actions to change the
names of some state owned enterprises to include "Taiwan" and remove "China"
seems like a positive move, from the average Westerners point of view.
Westerners trust people from Taiwan and people representing Taiwanese companies.
People representing Taiwanese companies with China in their name are sometimes
misunderstood and are treated a little more cautiously. This cautiousness stems from
the fact that the PRC's legal protections and copyright issues are not as robust as
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
Taiwan needs to proudly and boldly reinforce its "brand" recognition in the world
with a clear and unambiguous identity.
This will benefit not only the Taiwanese people in their international dealings but will
also assist people who do business with Taiwan, potential tourists, government
officials of foreign countries and other international organizations that wish to deal
with a modern, vibrant, free and independent Taiwan.
Walt Brown
Auckland, New Zealand
It is a mistake for Michael Falick to say that state-run entities in Taiwan are "owned --
and named -- by China" (Letter, Feb. 26, page 8). This is precisely the reason why
many names in Taiwan have to be rectified to avoid mistakes and confusion like this.
Many of these Taiwanese entities were established even before the PRC was born.
China cannot have named or owned them. Although most of them still carry "China"
or "Chinese" in their names, they are not owned by China. As state-run corporations,
they belong to the people of Taiwan. The government has the responsibility to
administer them and report to the people rather than the shareholders.
Likewise, New England does not belong to England, nor is New Mexico part of
Mexico, although Americans choose not to change these names since England and
Mexico do not claim these areas.
Taiwan is called "Chinese Taipei" in the Olympics, APEC meetings and other
international gatherings. Americans would be pissed off if the US were called "British
Washington." Taiwan's official representative office in the US has a lengthy name,
"Taipei Economic and Cultural Representative Office." This name needs to be
shortened for simplicity.
Individuals also have rights to change or to keep their names. Chinese Nationalist
Party (KMT) Legislator John Chiang has freedom to rectify his last name if he thinks
his previous last name (Chang) was incorrect. Former KMT chairman Ma Ying-jeou
was born in Hong Kong and his given name literally means "British Kowloon." Ma
has liberty to keep his original name, right or wrong.
It was childish for Ma to criticize the recent name changes in Taiwan as "childish."
Taipei Times /March 1, 2007
Ma always opposes whatever President Chen says and does anyway.
Charles Hong
Columbus, Ohio

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